After airing the suggestion a couple of months earlier, on 9 September 1929, Artistide Briand, French foreign minister, made a speech to the then 27 members of the League of Nations in which he proposed a federal union of European nations. He said: ‘among peoples who are geographically grouped together like the peoples of Europe there must exist a kind of federal link … Evidently the association will act mainly in the economic sphere … but I am sure also that from a political point of view, and from a social point of view, the federal link, without infringing the sovereignty of any of the nations taking part, could be beneficial’.buried the scheme. Plan of Union for Europe: the appearance and the reality of supposed ‘Federation’ idea From our own Correspondent “A great scheme of M. Briand” is announced by M. Henri Bartde in the Œuvre to-day, and a great scheme, according to M.Barde’s description, it certainly is: … [Read more...] about Aristide Briand’s plan for a United States of Europe
Economic history of the united states
A new history of the world’s worst nuclear accident has emerged from the recent opening of Chernobyl archival materials. In “Chernobyl: History of a Tragedy,” Serhii Plokhy traces how the explosion occurred in 1986, the Soviet government’s crisis management, and the repercussions of the explosion that released radiation equivalent to 500 bombs dropped on Hiroshima. A professor of Ukrainian history at Harvard University, Plokhy portrays Chernobyl as both pivotal cause and perfect metaphor of the collapse of the Soviet Union. Not only was Chernobyl “the beginning of the end of the Soviet Union,” but also its parallel: a massive undertaking meant to bring progress through science, but plagued by a long history of systemic issues swept under the rug, culminating in a sudden but inevitable collapse with profound global impact. The first chapter opens with the 1986 Communist Party Conference, where leading officials gathered to assess the state of the … [Read more...] about ‘Chernobyl: History of a Tragedy’
Hardly a day passes without senior U.S. officials criticizing Turkey over its plans to purchase Russian S-400 air defense systems or pressuring Turkish authorities to begin drilling for hydrocarbon reserves off the Cyprus Island. The latter, however, increasingly displays urgency in the eyes of U.S. policymakers. A recent visit by U.S. State Deputy Assistant Secretary Matthew Palmer to Nicosia seems to be quite significant in upgrading the level of bilateral relations between Washington and Nicosia. Turkey’s activities in the region and lifting a decades-old U.S. arms embargo on Cyprus were reportedly on Palmer’s agenda. This new engagement between the two countries is surely related to the discovery of relatively rich hydrocarbon reserves off the island, also paving the way for the U.S. giant energy companies, like ExxonMobil and Noble Energy, to penetrate into gas fields. The United States had already lent great political support to joint efforts by Greece, Israel and … [Read more...] about How about the rights of the Turkish Cypriots?
For a few seconds, her face brightened with pleasure, she rejoices in the moment. And why not? It's an evening in January, and Angela Merkel is sitting in a festively illuminated glass building at the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin, with CNN superstar Christiane Amanpour in front of her. "What can I say about a woman named Angela Merkel?" Amanpour asks the audience. That she's the first female chancellor? Merkel is much more than that, Amanpour continues, a scientist who still believes in the value of facts in this post-factual world; a woman who fights against nationalism and climate change. She describes how the chancellor has set a high standard for how to deal with the desperate people of the world. It's all laid on a bit thick, a mixture of Oscar ceremony and political seminar, but Merkel has a smile on her face. It's only now and then, when the camera zooms in on her, that she puts on a more neutral, chancellor-like face. Despite all that she has achieved, she still has a … [Read more...] about A Dim View of the World: Will Merkel Be Followed by Darkness?
For much of the 19th century, from the time of the 1801 Act of Union, exasperated English politicians would periodically refer to Ireland as a “Serbonian bog” for British governance. The legend of Lake Serbonis, told by Herodotus and repeated in Milton’s Paradise Lost, described a quicksand-like morass, on which many sought to stand but “where armies whole have sunk”. Try as they might, even the most well-intentioned British legislators found that their best-laid plans would sink on this treacherous terrain. Efforts to establish some sort of Irish self-governance proved no easier. By 1894, after the failure of William Gladstone’s Second Home Rule Bill, the London correspondent of the New York Times wrote that Ireland was regarded by most English MPs at Westminster as “a sort of Serbonian bog, whence proceeded from time to time unintelligible squeaks and groans, and through the obscurity of which vague shadows now and again may be seen flitting … [Read more...] about The return of the Irish question