Security experts are concerned that an increased use of surveillance technologies during the coronavirus pandemic could be exploited in the future.
Governments and technology companies have partnered in recent weeks to provide unparalleled access to public data, for purposes like monitoring social distancing.
Google is considering sharing location data from its various apps to help the US and UK governments determine whether the public is avoiding mass gatherings.
Meanwhile, the NHS is working on an app that traces the spread of COVID-19 infections in the UK and an algorithm linked to health data that identifies those most at risk.
Other countries including Italy, China, Taiwan and Israel have introduced their own government-sanctioned tracking technologies to monitor possible lockdown breaches.
Some of these new measures link movement data directly to a smartphone user’s identity, while others seek to collect a anonymised set of data to observe general movement trends.
But any lack of transparency on how such tech would be used after the coronavirus pandemic is over could pave the way for greater surveillance in future day to day life.
A woman wearing a face mask walks over a near empty Westminster Bridge backdropped by the London Eye. The UK government is using NHS data as it considers ways to monitor social distancing during the health pandemic
‘When pandemics hit, the rulebooks usually go out of the window – even when security is at stake,’ independent security specialist Jake Moore told MailOnline.
‘Sharing data is vital in this situation right now and offering it up could help save lives.
‘There will be a risk of this data being exploited in the future but this is something to consider once we are out of this mess.’
NHS data would be used to observe gathering trends in the UK and could influence future government decisions to help stop COVID-19 from spreading
NHS Digital announced last week that it has been given new legal powers by the government to help stop the spread of COVID-19 in the UK, where it has infected 6,650 people and killed 335 as of Monday.
The data branch of UK’s health service revealed it has been asked to collect and analyse data to identify those who are particularly vulnerable to the disease.
‘This is a rapidly moving situation and data is key to helping us understand how best to protect individuals at risk, know what is happening to patients and ensure that the NHS under pressure can deliver effectively,’ said Dr Jem Rashbass, Executive Director of Master Registries and Data at NHS Digital.
The NHS has been asked by the PM to look into whether app-based solutions might be helpful in tracking and managing coronavirus
‘We are facing one of the most significant challenges in modern times and information about the virus, and people’s experience of it, is key to the research in pursuit of a vaccine or to gain new insights about the disease.
‘NHS Digital will work closely with trusted partners to ensure that data is collected, analysed and disseminated in a way which best supports the whole system.’
Meanwhile, technology-focused branch NHSX said it is working on an app to trace the spread of coronavirus infections around the country – and it may even be considering live location tracking of those with COVID-19.
It’s not confirmed whether the NHS as a whole would make new technology products available to the public.
Designed by doctors and scientists at King’s College London, Guys and St Thomas’ Hospitals in partnership with ZOE, the ’ Covid Symptom Tracker ‘ lets users log their health status and any symptoms for the benefit of scientists
On Tuesday, Kings College London researchers also announced the ‘Covid Symptom Tracker‘, a free app for Brits to self-report their health status daily, even if they are well.
A collaboration between researchers at King’s College London and Guy’s and St Thomas’ hospitals and health data science company ZOE, the app helps scientists to identify high-risk areas in the UK as well as how fast the virus is spreading.
In the app’s privacy notice, it says user data is shared with ‘people doing health research’, such as hospital staff, the NHS, universities, research institutions and health charities.
‘An anonymous code is used to replace your personal details when we share this with researchers outside the NHS or King’s College London,’ it adds.
The privacy notice also says that data is shared with third parties that process personal data on behalf of the developers, including Amazon Web Services, Google Cloud and SurveyMonkey.
Taiwan has launched an ‘electronic fence’ program that will track people in quarantine for suspected COVID-19 exposure through their phone’s GPS data to make sure they’re not leaving their homes
Outside of the UK, network operator Vodafone said last week that it is producing an anonymous heat map for the Lombardy region in Italy to help authorities to better understand population movements.
Lombardy is the worst-affected region in Italy, with more than 3,000 COVID-19 deaths.
Also in mainland Europe, where lockdown measures are most strictly enforced, Austrian telco A1 is offering up movement analyses to local authorities, using anonymized data.
In Asia, Taiwan is rolling out a mobile phone-based ‘electronic fence’ program that uses location-tracking to ensure people who are quarantined stay in their homes.
Taiwanese police will be alerted within 15 minutes if someone is caught outside quarantine, who can be fined up to T$1 million (£28,218).
Meanwhile, in China, a ‘Health Code’, obtained through popular online payment platform Alipay indicates whether they’re allowed to enter public spaces – and reportedly feeds data back to police, the New York Times reports.
The Singapore government is also publishing details of confirmed COVID-19 infections on its website – going into an high level of detail, including age, sex, address and occupation.
Desperate times lead to desperate measures, but questions now arise as to how tracking systems will be viewed once the urgent health pandemic is over, or where personal data will end up.
‘As long as these companies then stop the access to this location data once it is not required going forward, then this should limit its exploitation,’ said Moore.
‘These announcements would have tremendously worried me if I had heard this a few months ago, but right now, it is a step forward in the fight to combat the disease.’
There is one COVID-19 tracking system that has received the seal of approval from a security expert.
Israel’s health ministry released a smartphone app at the weekend that takes location data from user phones in an attempt to determine if they might have been exposed to the virus.
The ‘Shield’ app for iOS and Android, compares location data from users’ phones to information collected about the location history of those confirmed to have coronavirus during the 14 days before their diagnosis.
Screenshot of Israel’s Shield app (‘Hamagen’ in Hebrew) for iOS and Android, which helps identify other people who should be quarantined because their paths crossed
This suggests to Israelis that they may have been infected, which can influence their decision whether or not to go outside.
‘I quite like the way the Israeli Ministry of Health is handling this issue – all the data stays on the user’s smartphone, it isn’t uploaded to the state or a big tech company,’ security blogger Graham Cluey told MailOnline.
As much of the spread of COVID-19 can be attributed to people who are between the window of contracting the virus and developing noticeable symptoms, the UK could benefit from something similar, he believes.
‘It’s opt-in, open source and the code is reviewed by security experts – that’s the model I’d like to see other countries adopt.’
WHAT DO WE KNOW ABOUT THE CORONAVIRUS?
What is the coronavirus?
A coronavirus is a type of virus which can cause illness in animals and people. Viruses break into cells inside their host and use them to reproduce itself and disrupt the body’s normal functions. Coronaviruses are named after the Latin word ‘corona’, which means crown, because they are encased by a spiked shell which resembles a royal crown.
The coronavirus from Wuhan is one which has never been seen before this outbreak. It has been named SARS-CoV-2 by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. The name stands for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2.
Experts say the bug, which has killed around one in 50 patients since the outbreak began in December, is a ‘sister’ of the SARS illness which hit China in 2002, so has been named after it.
The disease that the virus causes has been named COVID-19, which stands for coronavirus disease 2019.
Dr Helena Maier, from the Pirbright Institute, said: ‘Coronaviruses are a family of viruses that infect a wide range of different species including humans, cattle, pigs, chickens, dogs, cats and wild animals.
‘Until this new coronavirus was identified, there were only six different coronaviruses known to infect humans. Four of these cause a mild common cold-type illness, but since 2002 there has been the emergence of two new coronaviruses that can infect humans and result in more severe disease (Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronaviruses).
‘Coronaviruses are known to be able to occasionally jump from one species to another and that is what happened in the case of SARS, MERS and the new coronavirus. The animal origin of the new coronavirus is not yet known.’
The first human cases were publicly reported from the Chinese city of Wuhan, where approximately 11million people live, after medics first started publicly reporting infections on December 31.
By January 8, 59 suspected cases had been reported and seven people were in critical condition. Tests were developed for the new virus and recorded cases started to surge.
The first person died that week and, by January 16, two were dead and 41 cases were confirmed. The next day, scientists predicted that 1,700 people had become infected, possibly up to 7,000.
Where does the virus come from?
According to scientists, the virus almost certainly came from bats. Coronaviruses in general tend to originate in animals – the similar SARS and MERS viruses are believed to have originated in civet cats and camels, respectively.
The first cases of COVID-19 came from people visiting or working in a live animal market in Wuhan, which has since been closed down for investigation.
Although the market is officially a seafood market, other dead and living animals were being sold there, including wolf cubs, salamanders, snakes, peacocks, porcupines and camel meat.
A study by the Wuhan Institute of Virology, published in February 2020 in the scientific journal Nature, found that the genetic make-up virus samples found in patients in China is 96 per cent identical to a coronavirus they found in bats.
However, there were not many bats at the market so scientists say it was likely there was an animal which acted as a middle-man, contracting it from a bat before then transmitting it to a human. It has not yet been confirmed what type of animal this was.
Dr Michael Skinner, a virologist at Imperial College London, was not involved with the research but said: ‘The discovery definitely places the origin of nCoV in bats in China.
‘We still do not know whether another species served as an intermediate host to amplify the virus, and possibly even to bring it to the market, nor what species that host might have been.’
So far the fatalities are quite low. Why are health experts so worried about it?
Experts say the international community is concerned about the virus because so little is known about it and it appears to be spreading quickly.
It is similar to SARS, which infected 8,000 people and killed nearly 800 in an outbreak in Asia in 2003, in that it is a type of coronavirus which infects humans’ lungs. It is less deadly than SARS, however, which killed around one in 10 people, compared to approximately one in 50 for COVID-19.
Another reason for concern is that nobody has any immunity to the virus because they’ve never encountered it before. This means it may be able to cause more damage than viruses we come across often, like the flu or common cold.
Speaking at a briefing in January, Oxford University professor, Dr Peter Horby, said: ‘Novel viruses can spread much faster through the population than viruses which circulate all the time because we have no immunity to them.
‘Most seasonal flu viruses have a case fatality rate of less than one in 1,000 people. Here we’re talking about a virus where we don’t understand fully the severity spectrum but it’s possible the case fatality rate could be as high as two per cent.’
If the death rate is truly two per cent, that means two out of every 100 patients who get it will die.
‘My feeling is it’s lower,’ Dr Horby added. ‘We’re probably missing this iceberg of milder cases. But that’s the current circumstance we’re in.
‘Two per cent case fatality rate is comparable to the Spanish Flu pandemic in 1918 so it is a significant concern globally.’
How does the virus spread?
The illness can spread between people just through coughs and sneezes, making it an extremely contagious infection. And it may also spread even before someone has symptoms.
It is believed to travel in the saliva and even through water in the eyes, therefore close contact, kissing, and sharing cutlery or utensils are all risky. It can also live on surfaces, such as plastic and steel, for up to 72 hours, meaning people can catch it by touching contaminated surfaces.
Originally, people were thought to be catching it from a live animal market in Wuhan city. But cases soon began to emerge in people who had never been there, which forced medics to realise it was spreading from person to person.
What does the virus do to you? What are the symptoms?
Once someone has caught the COVID-19 virus it may take between two and 14 days, or even longer, for them to show any symptoms – but they may still be contagious during this time.
If and when they do become ill, typical signs include a runny nose, a cough, sore throat and a fever (high temperature). The vast majority of patients will recover from these without any issues, and many will need no medical help at all.
In a small group of patients, who seem mainly to be the elderly or those with long-term illnesses, it can lead to pneumonia. Pneumonia is an infection in which the insides of the lungs swell up and fill with fluid. It makes it increasingly difficult to breathe and, if left untreated, can be fatal and suffocate people.
Figures are showing that young children do not seem to be particularly badly affected by the virus, which they say is peculiar considering their susceptibility to flu, but it is not clear why.
What have genetic tests revealed about the virus?
Scientists in China have recorded the genetic sequences of around 19 strains of the virus and released them to experts working around the world.
This allows others to study them, develop tests and potentially look into treating the illness they cause.
Examinations have revealed the coronavirus did not change much – changing is known as mutating – much during the early stages of its spread.
However, the director-general of China’s Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Gao Fu, said the virus was mutating and adapting as it spread through people.
This means efforts to study the virus and to potentially control it may be made extra difficult because the virus might look different every time scientists analyse it.
More study may be able to reveal whether the virus first infected a small number of people then change and spread from them, or whether there were various versions of the virus coming from animals which have developed separately.
How dangerous is the virus?
The virus has a death rate of around two per cent. This is a similar death rate to the Spanish Flu outbreak which, in 1918, went on to kill around 50million people.
Experts have been conflicted since the beginning of the outbreak about whether the true number of people who are infected is significantly higher than the official numbers of recorded cases. Some people are expected to have such mild symptoms that they never even realise they are ill unless they’re tested, so only the more serious cases get discovered, making the death toll seem higher than it really is.
However, an investigation into government surveillance in China said it had found no reason to believe this was true.
Dr Bruce Aylward, a World Health Organization official who went on a mission to China, said there was no evidence that figures were only showing the tip of the iceberg, and said recording appeared to be accurate, Stat News reported.
Can the virus be cured?
The COVID-19 virus cannot be cured and it is proving difficult to contain.
Antibiotics do not work against viruses, so they are out of the question. Antiviral drugs can work, but the process of understanding a virus then developing and producing drugs to treat it would take years and huge amounts of money.
No vaccine exists for the coronavirus yet and it’s not likely one will be developed in time to be of any use in this outbreak, for similar reasons to the above.
The National Institutes of Health in the US, and Baylor University in Waco, Texas, say they are working on a vaccine based on what they know about coronaviruses in general, using information from the SARS outbreak. But this may take a year or more to develop, according to Pharmaceutical Technology.
Currently, governments and health authorities are working to contain the virus and to care for patients who are sick and stop them infecting other people.
People who catch the illness are being quarantined in hospitals, where their symptoms can be treated and they will be away from the uninfected public.
And airports around the world are putting in place screening measures such as having doctors on-site, taking people’s temperatures to check for fevers and using thermal screening to spot those who might be ill (infection causes a raised temperature).
However, it can take weeks for symptoms to appear, so there is only a small likelihood that patients will be spotted up in an airport.
Is this outbreak an epidemic or a pandemic?
The outbreak was declared a pandemic on March 11. A pandemic is defined by the World Health Organization as the ‘worldwide spread of a new disease’.
Previously, the UN agency said most cases outside of Hubei had been ‘spillover’ from the epicentre, so the disease wasn’t actually spreading actively around the world.
- How One New Drone Tech Finally Allows All-Seeing Surveillance
- Google pledges 'greater transparency, protection and control over your data' with Android 10 update released today
- These 14 startups, endorsed by the seed-stage investment firm Pear, just hit the fundraising trail
- Audi AI:Trail Quattro Concept Previews Future Emission-Free Off-Roader
- History as a giant data set: how analysing the past could help save the future
- Climate change is not just about science – it’s about the future we want to create
- Budget 2010: what the experts say
- 22 Hidden Facebook Features Only Power Users Know
- How to Set Up a VPN on a Chromebook
- The 100 Best iPhone Apps for 2019
'When pandemics hit, the rulebooks go out the window': Experts warn using smartphone location data to track the spread of coronavirus could pave the way for greater public surveillance in the future have 3270 words, post on www.dailymail.co.uk at March 24, 2020. This is cached page on Europe Breaking News. If you want remove this page, please contact us.