Since House Speaker Nancy Pelosi announced a formal impeachment inquiry in September, there has been a steady drumbeat of current and former administration and government officials who have come forward, either willingly or under subpoena, to testify in the rapidly developing probe.
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At the heart of the inquiry is President Donald Trump’s July 25 phone call with Ukraine President Volodymyr Zelenskiy and whether the administration withheld nearly $400 million in aid and a White House summit between the two leaders in exchange for an investigation into the president’s political rival, former Vice President Joe Biden and his son, Hunter for his work on the board of Ukrainian energy company Burisma.
Trump also allegedly wanted the aid withheld unless there was an investigation into a largely debunked theory that it was Ukrainians, not Russians, who tried to interfere in the 2016 election – on behalf of Hillary Clinton – and the Democrats’ purported efforts on that front.
A number of questions surround the call, including Trump’s personal lawyer Rudy Giuliani’s alleged role in lobbying the Ukrainian government through back channels, the involvement of Secretary of State Mike Pompeo and Energy Secretary Rick Perry, and why exactly U.S. Ambassador to Ukraine Marie Yovanovitch was recalled.
Democrats say the testimony paints a picture of the president’s abuse of power to pursue politically motivated investigations while Republicans have raced to Trump’s defense, attacking the closed-door depositions as unfair and saying there was no evidence of a quid pro quo.
Here are the people who have testified so far and what they said:
Oct. 3, 2019: Kurt Volker, former U.S. special envoy to Ukraine
Oct. 4, 2019: Michael Atkinson, intelligence community inspector general
Oct. 11, 2019: Marie Yovanovitch, former U.S. Ambassador to Ukraine
Oct. 14, 2019: Fiona Hill, former Russia expert for the National Security Council
Oct. 15, 2019: George Kent, Deputy Assistant Secretary of State
Oct. 16, 2019: Michael McKinley, former senior adviser to Secretary of State Mike Pompeo
Oct. 17, 2019: Gordon Sondland, U.S. ambassador to the European Union
Oct. 22, 2019: Bill Taylor, U.S. charge d’affaires for Ukraine
Oct. 23, 2019: Laura Cooper, deputy assistant secretary of defense for Russia, Ukraine, Eurasia
Oct. 26, 2019: Philip Reeker, acting assistant secretary of European and Eurasian affairs
Oct. 29, 2019: Army Lt. Col. Alexander Vindman, director of European affairs for the National Security Council
Oct. 30, 2019: Christopher Anderson, former special adviser to Kurt Volker
Oct. 30, 2019: Catherine Croft, State Department Ukraine specialist
Oct. 31, 2019: Tim Morrison, National Security Council senior director for Europe and Russia
ABC News’ John Santucci, Katherine Faulders, Benjamin Siegel, Matthew Mosk, Ali Dukakis, Allison Pecorin, Laura Romero, Lucien Bruggeman, Soo Rin Kim, Justin Fishel, Jordyn Phelps, Shannon Crawford, Kathryn McQuade and Connor Finnegan contributed to this report.
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