Boris Johnson is facing a rebellion from within his own party as Conservative MPs push to seize control of parliamentary proceedings in an attempt to block a no-deal Brexit.
The prime minister has said he will push for a snap general election if the rebels succeed – and he has continued to insist that the UK will leave the EU on 31 October, with or without a deal.
A senior government source said any bid to “wreck” the UK’s negotiating position with Brussels would prompt a motion for an early election on 14 October.
That motion would have to be supported by two-thirds of MPs, according to the Fixed-term Parliaments Act.
The government is expected to publish the motion before MPs vote on taking control of parliamentary proceedings so rebels will know the consequences of voting against the government, a senior source said.
They added that any vote against the government’s position would be treated as a vote of no confidence and any Conservative MP voting against the government risks having the whip withdrawn, meaning they will be expelled from the party and cannot stand as a Tory candidate in the next general election.
Despite this, 14 Tory MPs have signalled their intention to vote against the government.
It has also emerged that Phillip Lee, who has been a Conservative MP since 2010, has defected to the Liberal Democrats – becoming the fourth addition to the parliamentary party in the past few months.
MPs who have confirmed they will vote to avoid a no-deal Brexit:
The former chancellor – and Mr Johnson’s most high-profile critic – said he will support Tuesday’s bill, and the prime minister would face “the fight of a lifetime” if Mr Hammond is dropped as a candidate in the Surrey constituency of Runnymede and Weybridge, where he has been an MP for 22 years.
He has put his name to a motion requesting an emergency debate on a no-deal Brexit, which MPs hope to use as a vehicle for their plan to block the UK leaving the bloc without a withdrawal agreement.
The former justice secretary, another very high-profile rebel, said he is prepared to lose his job to vote against no deal and he has to put the national interest first.
He has also put his name to the motion requesting an emergency Commons debate.
The former attorney general confirmed to Sky News he will be rebelling against the government and said the prime minister has the power to withdraw the whip, although he has not been directly threatened.
The former education secretary confirmed she will vote to force the prime minister to extend Article 50 as she announced she is standing down as an MP at the next election due to the Brexit gridlock.
A former minister under Theresa May, David Cameron and John Major, the long-serving Tory resigned as a junior foreign minister to vote for greater parliamentary control over Brexit in May.
He has put his name to proposed legislation to block a no-deal Brexit, and revealed he was being threatened with deselection. It has now emerged Mr Burt plans to stand down at the next general election.
Mr Johnson’s opponent in the Tory leadership campaign confirmed to Sky News he would vote against the government to stop a no-deal Brexit.
The Wimbledon MP was sacked last year from his role as Conservative vice chairman for London for voting for a legal guarantee of a final Brexit deal.
He has been very vocal with his opposition to no deal and revealed his position as part of Philip Hammond’s rebel group by saying he was also facing having the whip withdrawn.
The Welsh Tory MP wrote on the PoliticsHome website that he will be voting to block a no-deal Brexit in the knowledge that he could lose his job.
“While I always regret having to vote against the party’s whip, I do so with a clear conscience,” he added.
The Eddisbury MP told Sky News she will be voting against no deal, saying: “I feel so strongly about this that I’m prepared to put my job on the line for my constituents.”
Sacked by Mr Johnson in July from her role as an immigration minister – which she found out through a journalist’s tweet – said she has to be true to her constituents.
“My constituents mean a whole lot more to me than keeping the Conservative whip,” she told the BBC.
The former universities minister confirmed he will vote against the government “because it is the right thing to do” – and he feels that, if the prime minister loses, it will compel him to ask the EU for an extension.
The anti-Brexit MP led an amendment in March to get MPs to take control of Commons’ Brexit business.
Last week, he tweeted that he would support any efforts to prevent a no-deal Brexit on 31 October.
Having resigned as digital minister in July to vote against the government proroguing – suspending – parliament, she has confirmed she will again rebel.
Sir Nicholas Soames
A staunch Remainer, the Mid-Sussex MP said he will vote against the government unless Mr Johnson can assure him a deal will be done.
Conservative MPs expected to vote against the government:
A staunch opponent of a no-deal Brexit, the Watford MP resigned from the government to vote for an amendment in March which meant MPs would take control of Commons’ Brexit business.
Last week, he announced he would not stand for re-election in the next general election.
The former business secretary – sacked by Mr Johnson – has always opposed a no-deal Brexit and has previously indicated he would resign if the government went down that route.
Theresa May’s de facto deputy prime minister and a staunchly pro-Europe Tory, he was part of a group of rebels due to hold talks about a no-deal Brexit with Mr Johnson on Monday – but the prime minister cancelled it the night before.
The Guildford MP quit her job as skills and apprenticeships minister minutes after Mr Johnson won the Tory leadership race, saying she had “grave concerns about leaving the EU without a deal”.
The former health minister resigned his post to rebel against the government in support of handing the Commons control for a series of votes on alternatives to Mrs May’s Brexit deal in March.
He has supported revoking Article 50 and a second referendum.
An opponent of Brexit and Mr Johnson, the Wantage MP has said a no-deal Brexit will have a negative effect on the UK as a global data hub.
He has also retweeted journalists’ comments about Tory rebels and what that would mean for parliament.
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